3D Interaction Group

URL: https://research.cs.vt.edu/3di/

Contact: Doug Bowman

3DI stands for "three-dimensional interaction". Our research spans 3D user interfaces, interaction techniques, and applications, especially in the area of Virtual Environments (VE). Interaction in three dimensions is not well-understood, but is crucial to highly interactive VE applications like immersive education, scientific visualization, and immersive design. The mission of our lab is to perform both basic and applied research in three-dimensional (3D) interaction and VE technology, and to develop applications of VEs in a wide variety of domains.

2015
McMahan, R. P., R. Kopper, and D. A. Bowman, "Principles for Designing Effective 3D Interaction Techniques", Handbook of Virtual Environments: Design, Implementation, and Applications, 2, Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, pp. 285-311, 2015.
2014
2013
Bowman, D. A., "3D User Interfaces", Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd, Aarhus, Denmark, The Interaction Design Foundation, 2013.
Laha, B., D. A. Bowman, and J. D. Schiffbauer, "Validation of the MR Simulation Approach for Evaluating the Effects of Immersion on Visual Analysis of Volume Data", IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 19, issue 4, no. 4, pp. 529 - 538, 04/2013.
Lee, C., G. A. Rincon, G. Meyer, T. Hollerer, and D. A. Bowman, "The Effects of Visual Realism on Search Tasks in Mixed Reality Simulation", IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 19, issue 4, no. 4, pp. 547 - 556, 04/2013.
Kim, H., X. Wu, J. L. Gabbard, and N. F. Polys, "Exploring head-up augmented reality interfaces for crash warning systems", 5th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications (AutomotiveUI '13): ACM, 2013.
Bacim, F., R. Kopper, and D. A. Bowman, "Design and evaluation of 3D selection techniques based on progressive refinement", International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 71, issue 7-8, no. 7-8, pp. 785 - 802, 7/2013.
Ragan, E. D., R. Kopper, P. Schuchardt, and D. A. Bowman, "Studying the Effects of Stereo, Head Tracking, and Field of Regard on a Small-Scale Spatial Judgment Task", IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 19, issue 5, no. 5, pp. 886 - 896, 05/2013.
Bowman, D. A., and B. Laha, "Volume Cracker: a Bimanual 3D Interaction Technique for Analysis of Raw Volumetric Data", Proceedings of the 1st symposium on Spatial user interaction - SUI '13, Los Angeles, California, USA, ACM Press, pp. 61, 2013.
Bowman, D. A., E. D. Ragan, S. Scerbo, and F. Bacim, "Evaluating the Impact of Head Rotation Amplification on Virtual Reality Training Effectiveness", Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC), Orlando, FL, 2013.
Kohlbrecher, S., D. C. Conner, A. Romay, F. Bacim, D. A. Bowman, and O. von Stryk, "Overview of team ViGIR's approach to the Virtual Robotics Challenge", 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics (SSRR), Linkoping, Sweden, IEEE, pp. 1 - 2, 2013.
Laha, B., and D. A. Bowman, "Volume cracker", Proceedings of the 1st symposium on Spatial user interaction - SUI '13, Los Angeles, California, USANew York, New York, USA, ACM Press, pp. 61, 2013.
2012
McMahan, R. P., D. A. Bowman, D. J. Zielinski, and R. B. Brady, "Evaluating Display Fidelity and Interaction Fidelity in a Virtual Reality Game", IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 18, issue 4, no. 4, pp. 626 - 633, 04/2012.
Laha, B., K. Sensharma, J. D. Schiffbauer, and D. A. Bowman, "Effects of Immersion on Visual Analysis of Volume Data", IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 18, issue 4, no. 4, pp. 597 - 606, 04/2012.
Apostolellis, P., B. Laha, and D. A. Bowman, "A gaming interface using body gestures for collaborative navigation", 2012 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (3DUI), Costa Mesa, CA, USA, IEEE, pp. 185 - 186, 03/2012.
Bowman, D. A., R. P. McMahan, and E. D. Ragan, "Questioning naturalism in 3D user interfaces", Communications of the ACM, vol. 55, issue 9, pp. 78-88, 09/2012.
Ragan, E. D., R. Kopper, P. Schuchardt, and D. A. Bowman, "Studying the Effects of Stereo, Head Tracking, and Field of Regard on a Small-Scale Spatial Judgment Task", IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 886-896, 2013, 2012.
Baricevic, D., C. Lee, M. Turk, T. Hollerer, and D. A. Bowman, "A hand-held AR magic lens with user-perspective rendering", 2012 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR)2012 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), Atlanta, GA, USA, IEEE, pp. 197 - 206, 2012.
Bowman, D. A., C. A. Stinson, E. D. Ragan, and S. Scerbo, "Evaluating effectiveness in virtual environments with MR simulation", Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC), Orlando, FL, 12/2012.
Bowman, D. A., C. Stinson, E. D. Ragan, S. Scerbo, T. Höllerer, C. Lee, R. P. McMahan, and R. Kopper, "Evaluating effectiveness in virtual environments with MR simulation", Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC), Orlando, FL, 2012.
2011
Polys, N. F., D. A. Bowman, and C. North, "The role of Depth and Gestalt cues in information-rich virtual environments", International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 69, issue 1-2, no. 1-2, pp. 30 - 51, 01/2011.
Ni, T., D. A. Bowman, and C. North, "AirStroke: bringing unistroke text entry to freehand gesture interfaces", Proceedings of the 2011 annual conference on Human factors in computing systems - CHI '11, Vancouver, BC, Canada, ACM Press, pp. 2473, 05/2011.
Kopper, R., F. Bacim, and D. A. Bowman, "Rapid and accurate 3D selection by progressive refinement", 2011 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (3DUI), Singapore, Singapore, IEEE, pp. 67 - 74, 03/2011.
Wang, Y., and D. A. Bowman, "Effects of navigation design on Contextualized Video Interfaces", 2011 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (3DUI), Singapore, Singapore, IEEE, pp. 27 - 34, 03/2011.
Ni, T., D. A. Bowman, C. North, and R. P. McMahan, "Design and evaluation of freehand menu selection interfaces using tilt and pinch gestures", International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 69, issue 9, pp. 551 - 562, 8/2011.
Ragan, E. D., A. Endert, D. A. Bowman, and F. Quek, "The effects of spatial layout and view control on cognitive processing", Proceedings of the 2011 annual conference extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems - CHI EA '11, Vancouver, BC, Canada, ACM Press, pp. 2005, 2011.
2010
Kopper, R., D. A. Bowman, M. G. Silva, and R. P. McMahan, "A human motor behavior model for distal pointing tasks", International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 68, issue 10, no. 10, pp. 603 - 615, 10/2010.
Figueroa, P., Y. Kitamura, S. Kuntz, L. Vanacken, S. Maesen, T. De Weyer, S. Notelaers, J. R. Octavia, A. Beznosyk, K. Coninx, et al., "3DUI 2010 Contest Grand Prize Winners", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 30, issue 6, no. 6, pp. 86 - 96, c3, 11/2010.
Bacim, F., N. Polys, J. Chen, M. Setareh, J. Li, and L. Ma, "Cognitive scaffolding in Web3D learning systems: a case study for form and structure", 15th International Conference on Web 3D Technology, Los Angeles, California, ACM SIGGRAPH, 07/2010.
2009
2008
Wilkes, C., and D. Bowman, "Advantages of Velocity-Based Scaling for Distant 3D Manipulation", Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, 2008.
Sowndararajan, A., R. Wang, and D. Bowman, "Quantifying the Benefits of Immersion for Procedural Training", Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Workshop on Emerging Display Technologies and Immersive Display Technologies, 2008.
Ni, T., R. McMahan, and D. Bowman, "Tech-note: rapMenu: Remote Menu Selection using Freehand Gestural Input", Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces, pp. 55-58, 2008.
2007
Wang, Y., D. Krum, E. Coelho, and D. Bowman, "Contextualized Videos: Combining Videos with Environment Models to Support Situational Understanding", IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (Proceedings of IEEE Visualization), vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1568-1575, Nov/Dec, 2007.
Bowman, D., and R. McMahan, "Virtual Reality: How Much Immersion is Enough?", IEEE Computer, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 36-43, 2007.
Polys, N., S. Kim, and D. Bowman, "Effects of Information Layout, Screen Size, and Field of View on User Performance in Information-Rich Virtual Environments", Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds (Extended version of VRST 2005 paper), vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 19-38, 2007.
Bowman, D., and P. Schuchardt, "The Benefits of Immersion for Spatial Understanding of Complex Underground Cave Systems", Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, pp. 121-124, 2007.
Ray, A., and D. Bowman, "Towards a System for Reusable 3D Interaction Techniques", Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, pp. 187-190, 2007.
Bowman, D., B. Badillo, and D. Manek, "Evaluating the Need for Display-Specific and Device-Specific 3D Interaction Techniques", Proceedings of Virtual Reality International Conference (in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4563), pp. 195-204, 2007.
McMahan, R., and D. Bowman, "An Empirical Comparison of Task Sequences for Immersive Virtual Environments", Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces, pp. 25-32, 2007.
2006
Bowman, D., J. Chen, C. Wingrave, J. Lucas, A. Ray, N. Polys, Q. Li, Y. Haciahmetoglu, J. Kim, S. Kim, et al., "New Directions in 3D User Interfaces", International Journal of Virtual Reality, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 3-14, 2006.
Wang, Y., K. Otitoju, T. Liu, S. Kim, and D. Bowman, "Evaluating the Effect of Real World Distraction on User Performance in Virtual Environments", Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, pp. 19-26, 2006.
McMahan, R., D. Gorton, J. Gresock, W. McConnell, and D. Bowman, "Separating the Effects of Level of Immersion and 3D Interaction Techniques", Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, pp. 108-111, 2006.
Wingrave, C., Y. Haciahmetoglu, and D. Bowman, "Overcoming World in Miniature Limitations by a Scaled and Scrolling WIM", Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces, pp. 11-16, 2006.
Decker, J., A. Antony, A. Ray, S. Vardakos, M. Murphy, M. Mauldon, J. Dove, M. Gutierrez, D. Bowman, and E. Westman, "An Integrated Relational Database for Tracking Rock Mass Data During Tunneling", Safety in the Underground Space - Proceedings of the ITA-AITES 2006 World Tunnel Congress and 32nd ITA General Assembly, pp. 6 pgs, 2006.
2005
Setareh, M., D. Bowman, and A. Kalita, "Development of a Virtual Reality Structural Analysis System", Journal of Architectural Engineering, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 156-164, 2005.
Narayan, M., L. Waugh, X. Zhang, P. Bafna, and D. Bowman, "Quantifying the Benefits of Immersion for Collaboration in Virtual Environments", Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, pp. 78-81, 2005.
Wingrave, C., and D. Bowman, "Baseline Factors for Raycasting Selection", Proceedings of Virtual Reality International, pp. 10 pgs, 2005.
Lucas, J., J. Kim, and D. Bowman, "Resizing Beyond Widgets: Object Resizing Techniques for Immersive Virtual Environments", Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), pp. 1601-1604, 2005.
2004
Raja, D., D. Bowman, J. Lucas, and C. North, "Exploring the Benefits of Immersion in Abstract Information Visualization", 8th International Immersive Projection Technology Workshop, Iowa State, May, 2004.
Polys, N., M. Moldenhauer, A. Ray, C. Dandekar, C. North, and D. Bowman, "Snap2Diverse: Coordinating Information Visualizations and Virtual Environments", Proceedings of SPIE Visualization and Data Analysis (VDA), pp. 12 pages, January, 2004.
Mackie, C., J. Cowden, D. Bowman, and W. Thabet, "Desktop and Immersive Tools for Residential Home Design", Proceedings of CONVR Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality, pp. 63-70, 2004.
Shiratuddin, M., W. Thabet, and D. Bowman, "Evaluating the Effectiveness of Virtual Environment Displays for Reviewing Construction 3D Models", Proceedings of CONVR Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality, pp. 87-98, 2004.
Chen, J., D. Bowman, J. Lucas, and C. Wingrave, "Interfaces for Cloning in Immersive Virtual Environments", Proceedings of the Eurographics Symposium on Virtual Environments, 2004.
Polys, N. F., D. A. Bowman, and C. North, "Information-Rich Virtual Environments: Challenges and Outlook", NASA Virtual Iron Bird Workshop, NASA Ames, http://ic.arc.nasa.gov/vib/index.php, 2004. Abstract
2003
Cowden, J., D. Bowman, and W. Thabet, "Home Design in an Immersive Virtual Environment", Proceedings of CONVR Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality, pp. 1-7, 2003.
Larimer, D., and D. Bowman, "VEWL: A Framework for Building a Windowing Interface in a Virtual Environment", Proceedings of INTERACT: IFIP TC13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, pp. 809-812, 2003.
2002
Bowman, D., C. Rhoton, and M. Pinho, "Text Input Techniques for Immersive Virtual Environments: an Empirical Comparison.", Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, pp. 2154-2158, 2002.
Thabet, W. Y., M. Shiratuddin, and D. A. Bowman, "Virtual Reality in Construction: A Review", Engineering Computational Technology, Stirling, Scotland, Saxe-Coburg, pp. 25-52, 2002.
Bowman, D. A., "Principles for the Design of Performance-Oriented Interaction Techniques", Handbook of Virtual Environments, Mahwah, New Jersey, Lawrence-Erlbaum, pp. 277-300, 2002.
2001
Broll, W., L. Schaefer, T. Hoellerer, and D. Bowman, "Interface with Angels: The Future of VR and AR Interfaces", IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 14-17, 2001.
Bowman, D., D. Johnson, and L. Hodges, "Testbed Evaluation of Immersive Virtual Environments", Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 75-95, 2001.
Bowman, D., E. Kruijff, J. LaViola, and I. Poupyrev, "An Introduction to 3D User Interface Design", Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 96-108, 2001.
Setareh, M., D. Bowman, and P. Tumati, "Development of a Collaborative Design Tool for Structural Analysis in an Immersive Virtual Environment", Proceedings of the International Building Performance Simulation Association Conference, pp. 6 pgs, 2001.
Wingrave, C., D. Bowman, and N. Ramakrishnan, "A First Step Towards Nuance-Oriented Interfaces for Virtual Environments", Proceedings of the Virtual Reality International Conference, pp. 181-188, 2001.
2000
Kessler, G., D. Bowman, and L. Hodges, "The Simple Virtual Environment Library: An Extensible Framework for Building VE Applications", Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 187-208, 2000.
1999
Bowman, D., E. Davis, A. Badre, and L. Hodges, "Maintaining Spatial Orientation during Travel in an Immersive Virtual Environment", Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 618-631, 1999.
Bowman, D., J. Wineman, L. Hodges, and D. Allison, "The Educational Value of an Information-Rich Virtual Environment", Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 317-331, 1999.
Bowman, D., D. Johnson, and L. Hodges, "Testbed Evaluation of VE Interaction Techniques", Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, pp. 26-33, 1999.
1998
Bowman, D., J. Wineman, L. Hodges, and D. Allison, "Designing Animal Habitats Within an Immersive VE", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 9-13, 1998.
Bowman, D., L. Hodges, and J. Bolter, "The Virtual Venue: User-Computer Interaction in Information-Rich Virtual Environments", Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 478-493, 1998.
Bowman, D., D. Koller, and L. Hodges, "A Methodology for the Evaluation of Travel Techniques for Immersive Virtual Environments", Virtual Reality: Research, Development, and Applications, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 120-131, 1998.
1997
Bowman, D., and L. Hodges, "Toolsets for the Development of Highly Interactive and Information-Rich Virtual Environments", The International Journal of Virtual Reality, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 12-20, 1997.
Allison, D., B. Wills, D. Bowman, J. Wineman, and L. Hodges, "The Virtual Reality Gorilla Exhibit", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 30-38, Nov/Dec, 1997.
Bowman, D., D. Koller, and L. Hodges, "Travel in Immersive Virtual Environments: An Evaluation of Viewpoint Motion Control Techniques", Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality Anuual International Symposium, pp. 45-52, 1997.
1996
Bowman, D. A., "Conceptual Design Space: Beyond Walk-through to Immersive Design", Designing Digital Space: An Architect’s Guide to Virtual Reality, New York, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 225-236, 1996.